Revue : Oecologia
Selective consequences of catastrophes for growth rates in a stream-dwelling salmonid
Vincenzi S., Crivelli A.J., Giske J., Satterthwaite W.H., Mangel M.
Optimal life histories in a fluctuating environment are likely to differ from those that are optimal in a constant environment, but we have little understanding of the consequences of bounded fluctuations versus episodic massive mortality events. Catastrophic disturbances, such as floods, droughts, landslides and fires, substantially alter the population dynamics of affected populations, but little has been done to investigate how catastrophes may act as a
selective agent for life-history traits. We use an individual based model of population dynamics of the stream-dwelling salmonid marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) to investigate how trade-offs between the growth and mortality of individuals and density-dependent body growth can lead to the maintenance of a wide or narrow range of individual variation in body growth rates in environments that are constant (i.e., only demographic stochasticity), variable (i.e., environmental stochasticity), or variable with catastrophic events that cause massive mortalities (e.g., flash floods). We find that occasional episodes of massive mortality can substantially reduce persistent variability in individual growth rates. Lowering the population density reduces density dependence and allows for higher fitness of more opportunistic strategies (rapid growth and early maturation) during the recovery period.
Référence bibliographique :
Vincenzi S., Crivelli A.J., Giske J., Satterthwaite W.H., Mangel M. Selective consequences of catastrophes for growth rates in a stream-dwelling salmonid. Oecologia (2012) 168:393–404. DOI 10.1007/s00442-011-2096-8